Window Styles

An introduction to basic window operating types

Double-Hung—Top and bottom sash slide up and down within the window frame. With most current window models, the sash not only vertically, but tilt in for cleaning. Single-hung windows look similar, but only the lower sash moves up and down. Other variations of hung windows include cottage windows, which feature a bottom sash that is greater in height than the upper sash. Triple-hung windows, with three sliding sash, are also used in some very large openings.

Photo courtesy of Integrity Windows & Doors

Photo courtesy of Atrium Windows & Doors


Cottage Window

Casement—The sash of casement windows are hinged on the side of the window frame and swing out left or right. Most are operated by a crank. Models that don’t use a crank are commonly referred to as push-out casements. A French casement features two push-out sash that are hinged on opposite sides of the same frame.

Photo courtesy of MW Windows & Doors

French Casement
Photo courtesy of Weather Shield Windows & Doors

Horizontal Slider—Sash slide horizontally within the frame. Also called sliding windows or gliders, these units may feature one fixed (non-moving) sash and usually one or two sliding sash.

Horizontal Slider
Photo courtesy of Milgard Windows & Doors

Awning—Similar to casements, except the sash is hinged to the top of the window frame. Opening out in this manner allows awnings to be left open in light rain.

Photo courtesy of Semco Windows & Doors

Basement Windows—The sash of hopper windows are hinged at the bottom, opening for ventilation at the top. Other basement or utility windows hinge at the top.

Hopper & Utility
Photo courtesy of Andersen Corp.

Fixed—Non-opening unit. May be a large picture window, designed for optimum view or an accent window. Sometimes, referred to as a direct set, as there is no sash and the glass is affixed directly to the frame.

Photo courtesy of Pella Corp

Bay—Windows that protrude from the exterior wall and consist of a center fixed or picture window and two operable flanking units on either side,
angled back toward the main wall.

Photo courtesy of Simonton Windows

Bow—Like bays, bow windows also protrude from the exterior wall. They generally consist of a series of narrow casement or fixed windows combined in a gently-formed arc. An oriel is an older term for a bay or bow window unit that is supported at the bottom by brackets or corbels.

Photo courtesy of Gorell Windows & Doors

Garden—These windows, generally designed to provide a location to grow plants, protrude from a wall and generally feature a fixed window in the middle with two operable flanking units, typically at a 90° angle to the wall. The top of the window features sloped or curved glass to maximize exposure of sunlight on plants.

Photo courtesy of Simonton Windows

Tilt-Turn—A common style in Europe, these types of windows open two-ways. They tilt in at the top to provide ventilation or turn, with the panel swinging into the room to allow for greater ventilation, cleaning or emergency escape.

Photos courtesy of Atrium Windows & Doors

Jalousie—Window made up of horizontally-mounted glass louvers or slats that abut each other tightly when closed and rotate outward when cranked open.


Transom-A window located directly above another window or door.

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